1. What barriers prevent people from successfully using the analogy approach to problem solving? Think of an area in which you are an expert, such as an academic subject, hobby, or knowledge related to your work. When are you most likely to recognize the structural similarities shared by isomorphism?
2. Think of someone you know well, who is an expert in a particular area. Explain the cognitive areas in which he or she may have an advantage over a novice. When discussing this area of expertise, does this person fail to realize that other people might not understand this didcussion?
3. How are mental set and functional fixedness related to each other, and how do they limit problem solving? How could insight help you to overcome these two barriers to effective problem solving?
4. Describe the basic differences between deductive reasoning and decision making. Provide an example from your daily life that illustrates each of these cognitive processes. Why can both of them be categorized as “thinking”?
5. Describe the variety of ways in which people tend to be overconfident in their decision making. Think of relevant examples from your own experience . Then point out methods for avoiding the planning fallacy when you have a deadline for a class?
6. Many of the errors that people make in reasoning can be traced to overreliance on previous knowledge or overactive top-down processes. Discuss this point, and then relate it to the anchoring and adjustment heuristic